Mary Breckinridge was the nation’s foremost pioneer in the development of American midwifery and the provision of care to the nation’s rural areas as founder of the Frontier Nursing Service. Arriving in France after the armistice to work with the American Committee for Devastated France, she initiated a program to provide food and medical assistance for children, nursing mothers, and pregnant women. After a advanced courses in public health at Teachers College, and realizing a need for skilled midwives, she earned a midwife certificate from the British Hospital for Mothers and Babies in London. See all articles by this author. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. References Frontier Nursing Service (2014) History of Mary Breckinridge. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 1891, Mary's father, Clifton Breckinridge, a former Confederate midshipman, was appointed American Minister to St. Petersburg. Her family was very influential in the government; her grandfather was the Vice-President of the United States under President Buchanan, and her father was a congressman and the U.S. Mary Breckinridge. Mary Breckinridge ARH Hospital is pleased to announce the expansion of its Physical Rehabilitation Department and relocation to the second floor of the hospital. (She resumed use of her maiden name after her divorce became final in 1920.) Mary Breckinridge is known as the woman who founded family care centers and developed a model for rural healthcare. Several articles are found on Mary Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Service. Her family was a politically prominent one. Find Mary Breckenridge's email address, contact information, LinkedIn, Twitter, other social media and more. Her father, Clifton Rodes Breckinridge (1846-1932), was a cotton planter and US representative from Arkansas. Box 7• Mullica Hill, NJ 08062 • ph: 609.519.9689, Important Dates in the History of Nursing, Information for Librarians/Archivists/Collections Managers. Mary Breckinridge Pageants, Hyden, Kentucky. Breckinridge, descendant of a distinguished family that included a U.S. vice president and a Congressman and diplomat, lost her first husband and two children to… The introduction of nurse-midwives into the region brought its maternal and neonatal death rates well below the national average, and at a reasonable cost. In 1925 she moved to Leslie county, Kentucky, where she founded the Frontier Nursing Service, which she subsidized with her inheritance from her mother. In 1912 she married Richard Ryan Thompson, president of Crescent College and Conservatory for Young Women in Eureka Springs, Arkansas. Mary Carson Breckinridge has been listed as one of the Natural sciences good articles under the good article criteria. In addition to directing the service, which led to the foundation in 1929 of the American Association of Nurse-Midwives, she also edited its journal and traveled around the country as a fund-raiser. From overcoming oppression, to breaking rules, to reimagining the world or waging a rebellion, these women of history have a story to tell. Born in 1905 in Kentucky; graduated from Vassar College, 1927; studied at the New School for Social Research, New York; married a member of the American State Department.. Breckinridge, Mary (1881–1965)American nurse and midwife who founded the Frontier Nursing Service. After leaving her husband she turned to nursing, supervising nurses during the 1918 influenza epidemic. Breckinridge grew up in Washington, D.C., where her father was an Arkansas congressman, and in St. Petersburg, Russia, where he served as U.S. minister to Russia. Goan, M. (2008). This thesis examines the oral contraceptive trial that the FNS She had two children neither of whom survived childhood. Mary Breckinridge was born on February 17, 1881 in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. As we continue to celebrate the Year of the Nurse here at American Sentinel University, this month, we’re talking about the importance of quality healthcare in rural communities – and how nursing pioneer, Mary Breckinridge (1881-1965), made an impact during her lifetime. Born at Cabell’s Dale, the family estate near Lexington, Kentucky, on January 16, 1821, John Cabell Breckinridge was named for his father and grandfather. Similar Articles To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. She divorced Thompson in 1920. FNS served remote and impoverished areas off the road and rail system but accessible by horseback. Wife of General John C. Breckinridge Mary Cyrene Burch was born in 1826, the daughter of Clifton Rhodes Burch and Alethia Viley Burch. She was born on February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tenn. Mary Breckinridge, born in 1881 to an influential Kentucky family, enjoyed a privileged childhood and education in the U.S. and Europe. 3.3K likes. Goan, M. (2008). Her family was a politically prominent one. This thesis examines the oral contraceptive trial that the FNS After the war she spent two years in France with the American Committee for Devastated France. Frontier Nursing Service (2014) History of Mary Breckinridge. She received the Medaille Reconnaissance Francaise for her work organizing a visiting nurse association. Eventually Mary Breckenridge fell from her horse, rendering her unable to make house calls, but she stayed active as the leader of the Frontier Nursing Service until the end of her life in 1965. New York: Garland. Breckinridge, Mary (1881–1965)American nurse and midwife who founded the Frontier Nursing Service. Mary Carson Breckinridge was the granddaughter of United State Vice-President and later the Confederate Secretary of War, John C. Breckinridge. https://www.frontiernursing.org. Learn more about Breckinridge’s life and career. This article discusses current challenges in midwifery clinical practice and education and proposes possible solutions. Mary Breckinridge, (born February 17, 1881, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.—died May 16, 1965, Hyden, Kentucky), American nurse-midwife whose establishment of neonatal and childhood medical care systems in the United States dramatically reduced mortality rates of mothers and infants. (Eds.). The public is invited to an open house on August 20. References. Articles by Mary Breckenridge on Muck Rack. Mary Breckinridge was the eldest daughter and the second of 4 children of an illustrious family. Community Organization Breckenridge, renowned for her drive and vision, was a woman engaged in a single-focused mission to improve healthcare in one of the most rural, neglected patches on an American map. In 1925 Mary Breckinridge organized the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, renamed the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS). Retrieved from. Mary Breckinridge was born in Memphis, Tenn., to one of America’s most illustrious families. Mary Breckinridge is known as the woman who founded family care centers and developed a model for rural healthcare. Mary Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Service By Carol Crowe-Carraco° Shortly before her death in 1965, Mary Breckinridge re marked to an interviewer, "If you take the unborn child as the focal point you will soon be led to a broad program of public health." Leaving her husband six months before the end of World War I, she worked as a public health nurse in Boston and Washington, D.C., while awaiting a posting with the American Red Cross in France. Breckinridge, Mary Martin (b. Mary Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Service have been the focus of intense scholarly effort over the last twenty years. In 1982 Mary Breckinridge was inducted into the American Nurses Association’s Hall as a tribute for her contributions to the nursing profession in women’s health, community and family nursing, as well as the rural health care delivery. Devastated by the deaths of her newborn daughter in 1916 and her four-year-old son in 1918, she decided to honour their memory by devoting her life to improving children’s conditions. After her 1904 marriage ended in 1906 with her husband’s death, she entered St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing in New York City, and she graduated in 1910, receiving an R.N. She was married to Henry Ruffner Morrison at the age of 23 but he died only two years later. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She was born February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tennessee, one of four children of Katherine Carson and Clifton Rhodes Breckinridge. In: V.L. Considered to be the founder of nurse-midwifery in this country, Mary Breckinridge, a nurse with the Frontier Nursing Service, devoted her life to assisting women in poverty-stricken areas of Kentucky. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1861-present. Scholarship on Mary Breckinridge has centered on her healthcare reform work in Appalachia and its effects on the local residents and culture. In addition to assisting with childbirth, she taught her patients about nutrition, cleanliness, and child care. From her work in France and visits to England she became convinced that the health of rural American children would benefit from the presence of trained midwives. Mary Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Service have been the focus of intense scholarly effort over the last twenty years. 1905) American pioneering radio reporter during World War II. Mary Breckinridge created a legacy whose ripple effects will continue to affect eastern Kentucky, the United States and the world for a long time to come. In 1925 she founded the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky. It is also where Mary Breckinridge introduced the first nurse-midwives into the United States, valiantly committed to reducing the high infant and maternal mortality that plagued the mountaineers(1). She also embarked on an educational trip to Scotland, where she observed how a nursing service there effectively provided medical care to a dispersed population. Through her work, she helped to reduce the mortality rates of mothers and infants. Although Breckinridge's … Search Google Scholar for this author. (1988). To prepare to make the goal a reality, she studied public health nursing at Teachers College of Columbia University and midwifery at three British institutions. She is the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service and worked to spread these centers across the United States to areas with scarce or no care. Her childhood included travel, private tutors and finishing school. America History and Life. In 1912 she married Richard Ryan Thompson, president of a Eureka Springs, Arkansas, women’s school where she taught French and hygiene. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press. She modeled her services on European practices and sought to professionalize American nurse-midwives to practice autonomously in homes and decentralized clinics. Mary Breckinridge, American nurse-midwife whose establishment of neonatal and childhood medical care systems in the United States dramatically reduced mortality rates of mothers and infants. Edna Johnson, Ph.D. Edna Johnson. Gina Castlenovo, November 2003. ) Bullough, Church, O.M.,& Stein, A.P. Mary Breckinridge was the driving force behind rural health-care in America as well as the development of nurse midwives. Mary Breckinridge had the right Idea about wanting to help the less fortune. All rights reserved.P.O. Mary Breckinridge, Self: The Forgotten Frontier. Retrieved from https://www.frontiernursing.org. Read Full Article. Born on February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tennessee; died on May 16, 1965, in Hyden, Kentucky; first daughter and second of four children of Clifton Rodes (a cotton planter and commission merchant, U.S. Born in Memphis in 1881, she was the granddaughter of Kentucky’s own John C. Breckinridge—vice president to James Buchanan, 1860 presidential contender, Confederate general … Born on February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tennessee; died on May 16, 1965, in Hyden, Kentucky; first daughter and second of four children of Clifton Rodes (a cotton planter and commission merchant, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. American nurse-midwife Mary Breckinridge established newborn and childhood medical-care systems in the United States. The illness of a friend's child influenced her decision to become a nurse and she attended St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing in New York, graduating in 1910. Midwifery clinical practice and education has changed significantly since Mary Breckinridge first introduced nurse-midwives to the United States in 1925. Updates? She was married to Richard Ryan Thompson and Ruffner Morrison. For the first two years of her marriage she taught French and hygiene at the school. This page is dedicated to pageants held in Leslie County. Authors; Librarians; Editors Browse; Resources. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bjoring History Center presentation by Madonna Grehan on Nov. 17, Quarterly Advancement in Nursing Education - Special Issue on Nursing Education from Sioban Nelson, Compilation of 100 Books By and About Army and Navy WWII Nurses, Back to Childbirth Basics - Melissa Sherrod was interviewed, and Mary Gibson quoted, in this article, Submit Your Article to a Special Edition of Women's Writing on Illness and Disease, © Copyright 2018 AAHN. Papers of John Breckinridge document his service as Kentucky attorney general and legislator; his years as U.S. attorney general and senator; the Alien and Sedition Acts; and the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799. Mary Breckinridge was born into a privileged family in Memphis, Tennessee in 1881, but she lived and died in modest circumstances in rural Kentucky. The author admirably shows how this historical case study of Mary Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Service enlarges our understanding of Appalachia, social reform, and scientific medicine in the twentieth century. Mary Breckinridge ARH Expands Rehabilitation Department 8/19/2015. Goan does a fine job placing Breckinridge, her life, her ideas, and her achievements in their historical and cultural contexts. Breckinridge’s autobiography, Wide Neighborhoods: A Story of the Frontier Nursing Service, was published in 1952. Corrections? American nursing: A biographical dictionary. Mary Carson Breckinridge was the granddaughter of United State Vice-President and later the Confederate Secretary of War, John C. Breckinridge. Mary Breckinridge, the Frontier Nursing Service and the introduction of nurse-midwifery in the United States. Mary Breckinridge’s genteel background was worlds away from impoverished Appalachia. Her early eduction was by tutors but she also attended private schools. Mary Breckinridge—A Voice from the Past Show all authors. MENU. Skip to main content. Articles of Incorporation of … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Registered users can save articles, searches, and manage email alerts. First Published October 1, 2001 Other Find in PubMed. She is the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service and worked to spread these centers across the United States to areas with scarce or no care. Mary Breckinridge Pageants, Hyden, Kentucky. Registered users can save articles, searches, and manage email alerts. Her father served in Congress as a Representative from Arkansas, a minister to Russia and a commissioner of Indian affairs. She was born February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tennessee, one of four children of Katherine Carson and Clifton Rhodes Breckinridge. [Mary Breckinridge … 1983 Winter;57(4):485-507. Mary Carson Breckinridge (1881 – 1965) was an American nurse midwife and the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service(FNS), which provided comprehensive family medical care to the mountain people of rural Kentucky. Bullough, V.L. Bull Hist Med. Mary Carson Breckinridge, the second of four children, was born in 1881 to a wealthy southern family in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1906, Breckinridge was widowed at age 26. Mary Breckinridge, born in 1881 to an influential Kentucky family, enjoyed a privileged childhood and education in the U.S. and Europe. Her father was the U.S. ambassador to Czar Nicholas II of Russia from 1894 to 1897. This work set the stage for the rest of her life's work: nursing among the poor, especially children, in Kentucky. All registration fields are required. If you can improve it further, please do so. All registration fields are required. In this succinct manner, Mrs. Breckinridge summarized over five 1. Mary Breckinridge created a legacy whose ripple effects will continue to affect eastern Kentucky, the United States and the world for a long time to come. (1881–1965). Review: June 12, 2020. In 1906, Breckinridge was widowed at age 26. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it. Educated at private schools in Lausanne, Switzerland, and Stamford, Connecticut, she returned to her family’s Arkansas home in 1899. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mary-Breckinridge, The Global Medical Mission Hall of Fame Foundation - Biography of Mary Breckinridge, Mary Breckinridge - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Breckinridge was born on February 17, 1881, in Memphis, Tennessee. Scholarship on Mary Breckinridge has centered on her healthcare reform work in Appalachia and its effects on the local residents and culture. She died on May 17, 1965. Dissertation Abstracts. Mary Breckinridge was the driving force behind rural health-care in America as well as the development of nurse midwives. Mary Breckinridge was the nation’s foremost pioneer in the development of American midwifery and the provision of care to the nation’s rural areas as founder of the Frontier Nursing Service. Her grandfather, John C. Breckinridge, was Vice-president under James Buchanan. Her father was the U.S. ambassador to Czar Nicholas II of Russia from 1894 to 1897. Breckinridge, descendant of a distinguished family that included a U.S. vice president and a Congressman and diplomat, lost her first husband and two children to… Mary Breckenridge took careful note, while she was working in France during World War I, of the British nurse-midwives with whom she worked. As this year marks the 75th Anniversary of the Frontier Nursing Service there are wonderful resources on the Internet tracing the history of the FNS and their legendary leader. Omissions? Her father, Clifton Breckinridge, served in Congress and as the U.S. ambassador to the court of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 3.9K likes. This article presents a creative learning activity for midwifery and/or nursing education that integrates Mary Breckinridge's historical example with today's national goals for building communities. NOW 50% OFF! 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